The officially recognized minorities are Armenians, Bulgarians, Croats, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Romanians, Roma (Gypsy), Ruthenians, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Ukrainians.The largest minority is the Roma, who make up about 5 percent of the population, numbering approximately 500,000.A deep, permeating consciousness is another integral element of national identity.It can be summarized as "we are all alone" and is based on historical reasons and the "otherness" of the language and the origins of Hungarians.
In Latin chronicles dating back to the tenth century, there are colorful origin myths of the Hungarians "conquering" and occupying the Carpathian Basin and their conversion to Christianity under King Stephen.
After the late Middle Ages, a dual national consciousness is demonstrable.
On the one hand, there was a nation–state that ethnic Hungarians and non-Hungarians could share.
The second largest minority are the Germans, who number an estimated 170,000.
There are 80,000 to 110,000 Slovaks as well as about 35,000 Croatians, 15,000 to 25,000 Romanians, 80,000 to 100,000 Jews, and 5,000 Serbs. Hungarian belongs to the Ugor branch of the Finno-Ugric language family.