Storage pits and silos were dug into the ground to hold grain.
Under the united Israelite monarchy, central store cities were built, and greater areas of the northern Negev came under cultivation.
At Arad in the northern Negev, the remains of wheat, barley and legumes have been found, along with stone lined storage pits for grain from this period.
Pottery was imported from Cyprus and Mycenae in Greece for the first time, probably for use as good quality tableware.
Significant milestones in the availability and development food production characteristic of Israelite cuisine occurred well before the Israelite period.
Thus, conclusions about the food and drink in ancient Israel have been made with some confidence from this evidence.Pastoralism and animal husbandry remained important, and walled open spaces in villages that probably served as paddocks have been discovered.The construction of terraces in the hills, and of additional plastered cisterns for water storage, enabled more cultivation than before.Wine and oil were traded for wheat with the cities on the coastal plain, and for meat and skins with semi-nomadic herders.Wine and carobs were also exported to Egypt during this period.During the later Iron Age (Iron Age II) period, roughly the same period as the Israelite and Judean monarchies, olive oil and wine were produced on a large scale for commerce and export, as well as for local consumption.Written and archaeological evidence indicate that the diet also included other products from plants, trees and animals.In the Golan, olives trees were grown and olive oil was produced there.and grapes and olives became important crops in the hill country.Using both written and archaeological data, some comparisons can be drawn between the food of ancient Israel and its neighbors.Although there is much information about the foods of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, the inferences that can be made are limited due to differences in topography and climate; Israelite agriculture also depended on rainfall rather than the river-based irrigation of these two civilizations, resulting in the preference for different crops.