Additional clean animal figures assume they are taken aboard by sevens, not seven pairs, and also assume juvenile animals. (Brown proposes that the cataclysms were caused by the crust sliding around on a cushion of water; Whitcomb & Morris don't give a cause.) Austin, Steven A., John R. How does a flood explain the accuracy of "coral clocks"? Geological Highway Map of Nova Scotia, 2nd edition.
In conclusion, an ark of the size specified in the Bible would not be large enough to carry a cargo of animals and food sufficient to repopulate the earth, especially if animals that are now extinct were required to be aboard. The moon is slowly sapping the earth's rotational energy.
He then calculates that this would increase the total animal mass by 2-3% and decides that this amount is small enough that he can ignore it completely. It is important to take the size of animals into account when considering how much space they would occupy because the greatest number of species occurs in the smallest animals. Vermicomposting could reduce the rate of waste accumulation, but it requires maintenance of its own. The biology of spiders, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New York. The following objections are covered in more detail by Brown. Walt Brown's model proposes that the Flood waters came from a layer of water about ten miles underground, which was released by a catastrophic rupture of the earth's crust, shot above the atmosphere, and fell as rain. Kent Hovind proposed that the Flood water came from a comet which broke up and fell on the earth. [Johnsen et al, 1992,; Alley et al, 1993] A worldwide flood would be expected to leave a layer of sediments, noticeable changes in salinity and oxygen isotope ratios, fractures from buoyancy and thermal stresses, a hiatus in trapped air bubbles, and probably other evidence. Why did the Flood not leave traces on the sea floors? [Twenhofel, 1961] In a year of the Flood, they could have settled about half a meter. Such layers are sometimes meters in width, interbedded with sediments containing marine fossils.
If, as creationists claim, all fossil-bearing strata were deposited by the Flood, then all the animals which became fossils were alive then. How did Noah gather all those plants aboard, and where did he put them? (It is very nearly at thermal equilibrium now.) If there weren't many millions of years to radiate the heat from the above processes, the earth would still be unlivably hot. Logical, Philosophical, and Theological Points Acknowledgements reationist models are often criticized for being too vague to have any predictive value. Genesis 6-8 can be interpreted as a homiletic story such that the "world" that was flooded was just the area that Noah knew. A stable-isotope tree-ring timescale of the late glacial Holocene boundary. [For example, see Donohoe & Grantham, 1989, for locations of contact between the South Mountain Batholith and the Meugma Group of sediments, as well as some angular unconformities.] How can a single flood be responsible for such extensively detailed layering? Eolian sandstones in Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic red beds of the Fundy Basin, Nova Scotia. However, many other animals, particularly land arthropods, must also have been on the ark for two reasons: Were dinosaurs and other extinct animals on the ark? Institute for Creation Research, Santee, California. Koalas, for example, require eucalyptus leaves, and silkworms eat nothing but mulberry leaves. At these temperatures, much of the atmosphere would boil off the Earth. But even if such stories are true, what's the point? It is not enough that a ship be built to hold together; it must also be sturdy enough that the changing stresses don't open gaps in its hull. Bringing all kinds of animals together in the vicinity of the ark presents significant problems. If the animals traveled from other parts of the world, many of them would have faced extreme difficulties. Some creationists suggest that the animals need not have traveled far to reach the Ark; a moderate climate could have made it possible for all of them to live nearby all along. The last point above would have applied not only to island species, but to almost all species. How does such a neat sorting process occur in the violent context of a universal flood dropping 15 meters of sediment per day? It's entirely possible that a global flood occurred 4000 years ago or even last Thursday, and that God subsequently erased all the evidence, including our memories of it. Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. And yet despite this, the chemical properties of the rock are neatly layered, with great changes (e.g.) in percent carbonate occurring within a few centimeters in the vertical direction. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 132: 5-23. In addition, he determines that about 10% of the ark was needed for food (compacted to take as little space as possible) and 9.4% for water (assuming no evaporation or wastage). (Imagine if you had to stay in an area the size of a closet for a year.) How were several thousand diverse kinds of animals exercised regularly? How did a crew of eight manage a menagerie larger and more diverse than that found in zoos requiring many times that many employees? The water would be steam by the time it reached the surface of the earth. John Baumgardner created the runaway subduction model, which proposes that the pre-Flood lithosphere (ocean floor), being denser than the underlying mantle, began sinking. 119-144 In: Poldervaart, A., ed., Crust of the Earth, Geological Society of America Special Paper 62, Waverly Press, MD. Tree ring records go back more than 10,000 years, with no evidence of a catastrophe during that time. These layers can occur more or less at random times in the geological history, and have characteristic fossils on either side. At least 25% of the space would have been needed for corridors and bracing. Woodmorappe claims that eight people could care for 16000 animals, but he makes many unrealistic and invalid assumptions. The heat released in the process decreased the viscosity of the mantle, so the process accelerated catastrophically. Patterns of ocean circulation over the continents during Noah's Flood. Patterns and processes of vertebrate evolution, Cambridge University Press. Miracles in, creationism out: "The geophysics of God". [Becker & Kromer, 1993; Becker et al, 1991; Stuiver et al, 1986] Alley, R. Therefore, if the fossils were themselves laid down during a catastrophic flood, there are, it seems, only two choices: (1) the salt layers were themselves laid down at the same time, during the heavy rains that began the flooding, or (2) the salt is a later intrusion. It defines clean animals essentially as ruminants, a suborder which includes about 69 recent genera, 192 recent species [Wilson & Reeder, 1993], and probably a comparable number of extinct genera and species. However, the ark was divided into separate rooms and decks (Gen. How was fresh air circulated throughout the structure? The ungulates alone would have produced tons of manure a day. Several people have proposed answers to these questions, but none which consider all the implications of their models. Why is there no evidence of a flood in ice core series? [Poldervaart, 1955] A deposition rate ten times as high for 5000 years before the Flood would still only account for less than 0.02% of limestone deposits. Chalk is largely made up of the bodies of plankton 700 to 1000 angstroms in diameter [Bignot, 1985]. "Creationism: Please Don't Call It Science" Creation/Evolution, 13:1 (Summer 1993), 45-49. Geology of the Himalayas, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York. A., 1990, Early Pennsylvanian swamp forests in the Mary Lee coal zone, Warrior Basin, Alabama. That is a small percentage of the total number of species, but ruminants are among the largest mammals, so their bulk is significant. 8-9) gets around the problem by citing Jewish tradition which gives only 13 domestic genera as clean. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., Philadelphia PA. The waste on the lowest deck at least (and possibly the middle deck) could not simply be pushed overboard, since the deck was below the water line; the waste would have to be carried up a deck or two. A few of the commonly cited models are addressed below. This model, proposed by Whitcomb & Morris and others, proposes that much of the Flood water was suspended overhead until the 40 days of rain which caused the Flood. Ice cores from Greenland have been dated back more than 40,000 years by counting annual layers. Such a mass of water as the Flood would have provided sufficient buoyancy to float the polar caps off their beds and break them up. In fact, the Greenland ice cap would not regrow under modern (last 10 ky) climatic conditions. Objects this small settle at a rate of .0000154 mm/sec. Some creationists provided even more detailed models, and these are also addressed (see especially sections 5 and 7). Second, the whole story can be dismissed as a series of supernatural miracles. However, one must wonder about a God who reportedly does one thing and then arranges every bit of evidence to make it look like something else happened. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 103 (1-2): 67-71. If we grant 400 days for this to settle, and ignore possible compaction since the Flood, we still have 15 meters of sediment settling per day. Extraterrestrial impact events: the record in the rocks and the stratigraphic record. A literal interpretation of the Flood story in Genesis, however, does imply certain physical consequences which can be tested against what we actually observe, and the implications of such an interpretation are investigated below. Creationists argue against the local flood model because it doesn't fit their own literalist preconceptions, but I know of no physical evidence contrary to such a model. The continental tree-ring record - absolute chronology, C-14 calibration and climatic-change at 11 KA. One formation in New Jersey is six kilometers thick.