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An atom with the same number of protons in the nucleus but a different number of neutrons is called an isotope.For example, uranium-238 is an isotope of uranium-235, because it has 3 more neutrons in the nucleus.(Note that this does not mean that the ratios are the same everywhere on earth.

If three different strontium-containing minerals form at the same time in the same magma, each strontium containing mineral will have the same ratios of the different strontium nuclides, since all strontium nuclides behave the same chemically.Radioactive elements "decay" (that is, change into other elements) by "half lives." If a half life is equal to one year, then one half of the radioactive element will have decayed in the first year after the mineral was formed; one half of the remainder will decay in the next year (leaving one-fourth remaining), and so forth.The formula for the fraction remaining is one-half raised to the power given by the number of years divided by the half-life (in other words raised to a power equal to the number of half-lives).Radiometric dating is a means of determining the "age" of a mineral specimen by determining the relative amounts present of certain radioactive elements.By "age" we mean the elapsed time from when the mineral specimen was formed.The decrease in the amount of potassium required to form the original mineral has consistently confirmed the age as determined by the amount of argon formed.Carbon-14 dating: See Carbon 14 Dating in this web site.Potassium-Argon dating: The element potassium (symbol K) has three nuclides, K39, K40, and K41. K40 can decay in two different ways: it can break down into either calcium or argon.The ratio of calcium formed to argon formed is fixed and known.Because of radioactivity, the fraction of rubidium-87 decreases from an initial value of 100% at the time of formation of the mineral, and approaches zero with increasing number of half lives.At the same time, the fraction of strontium-87 increases from zero and approaches 100% with increasing number of half-lives.

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