Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP.
Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
Manchester has a notable place in the history of Marxism and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels' work The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester, and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library.
It is notable for its architecture, culture, musical exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- ("breast", in reference to a "breast-like hill") or from mamma ("mother", in reference to a local river goddess).
Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station and scientists first split the atom, developed the stored-program computer and produced graphene in the city. Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh.
The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the domestic premises of the college house Chetham's School of Music and Chetham's Library.
Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best built, quickest, and most popular town of all Lancashire." During the English Civil War Manchester strongly favoured the Parliamentary interest.