Thus, increasing the quantity of animals by more than about 5% would overload the ark. Here are a few things he didn't take into account: Batten, R. All the original lithosphere became subducted; the rising magma which replaced it raised the ocean floor, causing sea levels to rise and boiling off enough of the ocean to cause 150 days of rain. The imparative of non-stationary natural law in relation to Noah's Flood. Proceedings of the third international conference on creationism, technical symposium sessions, pp. Reports of the National Center for Science Education 17(3): 29-32. I suspect that both will prove insuperable difficulties for a theory of flood deposition of the geologic column and its fossils. However, Woodmorappe makes several questionable and invalid assumptions. When it cooled, the ocean floor lowered again, and the Flood waters receded. [Jackson et al, 1990] How were sedimentary deposits recrystallized and plastically deformed in the short time since the Flood? Here's how the points discussed above affect his analysis. Sedimentary mountains such as the Sierras and Andes rose after the Flood by isostatic rebound. Proceedings of the second international conference on creationism, vol. The stretched pebble conglomerate in Death Valley National Monument (Wildrose Canyon Rd., 15 mi. 190), for example, contains streambed pebbles metamorphosed to quartzite and stretched to 3 or more times their original length. Table 1 shows Woodmorappe's analysis and some additional calculations. Page numbers refer to Woodmorappe, 1996, from which the figures in the row are taken. [Baumgardner, 1990a; Austin et al., 1994] New ocean basins. Catastrophic plate tectonics: a global flood model of earth history. In the beginning: compelling evidence for creation and the Flood. Plastically deformed stone is also common around salt diapirs [Jackson et al, 1990]. Standard theory is that they were laid down before Earth's atmosphere contained much oxygen. The creationists who propose all the species living together in a uniform climate are effectively proposing the destruction of all environments but one. To determine how much space is required for animals, we must first determine what is a kind, how many kinds were aboard the ark, and how big they were. Creationists themselves can't decide on an answer to this question; they propose criteria ranging from species to order, and I have even seen an entire kingdom (bacteria) suggested as a single kind. Woodmorappe and Whitcomb & Morris arbitrarily exclude all animals except mammals, birds, and reptiles. Many animals, especially insects, require special diets. Some of these events release significant amounts of heat. Since steam and air have a lower heat capacity than water, the steam released will quickly raise the temperature of the atmosphere over 1000 C. Most extinctions are caused by destroying the organisms' preferred environments. Getting all the animals aboard the Ark presents logistical problems which, while not impossible, are highly impractical. Since there were likely more animals to load, the time pressures would have been even worse. However, on the ark "kind" must have meant something closer to species for three reasons: What kinds were aboard the ark? One example, the Joggins section along the Bay of Fundy, shows a continuous section 2750 meters thick (along a 48-km sea cliff) with multiple in-place forests, some separated by hundreds of feet of strata, some even showing evidence of forest fires. For other examples, see Dawson, 1868; Cristie & Mc Millan, 1991; Gastaldo, 1990; Yuretich, 1994.] Creationists point to logs sinking in a lake below Mt. Helens as an example of how a flood can deposit vertical trunks, but deposition by flood fails to explain the roots, the soil, the layering, and other features found in such places. If the geologic record was deposited in a year, then the events it records must also have occurred within a year. Additional clean animal figures assume they are taken aboard by sevens, not seven pairs, and also assume juvenile animals. (Brown proposes that the cataclysms were caused by the crust sliding around on a cushion of water; Whitcomb & Morris don't give a cause.) Austin, Steven A., John R. How does a flood explain the accuracy of "coral clocks"? Geological Highway Map of Nova Scotia, 2nd edition. In conclusion, an ark of the size specified in the Bible would not be large enough to carry a cargo of animals and food sufficient to repopulate the earth, especially if animals that are now extinct were required to be aboard. The moon is slowly sapping the earth's rotational energy.
However, even Jewish sources admit that this contradicts the unambiguous word of the Bible. 187] The number and size of clean birds is small enough to disregard entirely, but the Bible at one point (Gen. Woodmorappe performed such an analysis and came to the conclusion that the animals would take up 47% of the ark. How did such a small crew dispose of so much waste? The animals aboard the ark would have been in very poor shape unless they got regular exercise. Again, this has the problem of the heat from the gravitational potential energy. A year long flood should be recognizable in sea bottom cores by (1) an uncharacteristic amount of terrestrial detritus, (2) different grain size distributions in the sediment, (3) a shift in oxygen isotope ratios (rain has a different isotopic composition from seawater), (4) a massive extinction, and (n) other characters. Why is there no evidence of a flood in tree ring dating? This apparently occurs when a body of salt water has its fresh-water intake cut off, and then evaporates.
(Minor arithmetic errors in totals are corrected.) Woodmorappe treats many animals as juveniles; "yearling" masses are masses of those animals after one year of growth. Most flood models (including those above, possibly excepting Hovind's) deal with the water after the flood by proposing that it became our present oceans. Proceedings of the third international conference on creationism, technical symposium sessions, pp. In an oxygen-rich regime, they would almost certainly be impossible. Mineralization is the replacement of the original material with a different mineral.
"Total mass after one year" is the maximum load which Woodmorappe allows for. The earth's terrain, according to this model, was much, much flatter during the Flood, and through cataclysms, the mountains were pushed up and the ocean basins lowered. How are these observations explained by a sorted deposition of remains in a single episode of global flooding?
But even if such stories are true, what's the point? It is not enough that a ship be built to hold together; it must also be sturdy enough that the changing stresses don't open gaps in its hull. Bringing all kinds of animals together in the vicinity of the ark presents significant problems. If the animals traveled from other parts of the world, many of them would have faced extreme difficulties. Some creationists suggest that the animals need not have traveled far to reach the Ark; a moderate climate could have made it possible for all of them to live nearby all along. The last point above would have applied not only to island species, but to almost all species. How does such a neat sorting process occur in the violent context of a universal flood dropping 15 meters of sediment per day?
It's entirely possible that a global flood occurred 4000 years ago or even last Thursday, and that God subsequently erased all the evidence, including our memories of it. Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. And yet despite this, the chemical properties of the rock are neatly layered, with great changes (e.g.) in percent carbonate occurring within a few centimeters in the vertical direction. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 132: 5-23.