‘Then you start to find the problems with it.’ Atmospheric carbon variations, including variability in the all-important carbon-14, left the method unreliable. that we could begin to correct for some of these variations in radiocarbon production,’ Walker says.
Although carbon dating is now more reliable, it has one major drawback: it only goes back 50,000 years, leaving most of human history outside its reach.
His fellowship training has prepared him to handle even challenging cases such as radical cystectomy with various urinary diversions, partial nephrectomy, and prostatectomies. Oncology, he has partners in both Radiation Oncology and Medical Oncology so that multimodal therapies can be employed across specialties with optimal integration and communication. For those with urinary incontinence or urinary frequency he has multiple treatment modalities in the form of Interstim, intravesical Botox, and placement of mid urethral slings.
He is trained to use robotic surgery to perform such procedures using minimally invasive techniques; allowing for a quicker recovery. Further, he uses the most up-to-date techniques to manage BPH and kidney stones.
He has offices in Hudson and Brooksville, Florida and is on active staff at both Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point and Oak Hill hospital.
His subspecialty interests include cancers involving the urinary tract such as bladder, prostate, kidney, testicular, and penile cancers. He uses his robotic training to perform robot assisted laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy for those women with pelvic organ prolapse.
is the only fellowship-trained urologic oncologist practicing between Gainesville and Tampa, Florida.
He is a graduate of the University of South Florida College of Medicine in Tampa, Florida, and completed his urologic residency at the University of Oklahoma Health Science Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Developed by Willard Libby in the 1940s – and winning him the Nobel prize in chemistry in 1960 – the basic principle of radiocarbon dating is simple: living things exchange carbon with their environment until they die.
‘We’re kind of at the mercy of geochemistry.’Pike’s team used this method to give a minimum date to red hand stencils found in a cave in northern Spain called El Castillo, which contains the oldest known cave art in the world. This is long after humans were supposed to become anatomically modern, adding to the evidence suggesting that early anatomically modern humans didn’t necessarily act modern. Anatomically modern humans arrived in northern Spain around 42,000 to 43,000 years ago, and Neanderthals died out between 39,000 and 41,000 years ago.
But because the stencil date is a minimum age, there’s a chance the Neanderthals could have been the artists.
[but] if you haven’t got organic pigment in there, you can’t use radiocarbon and you’d be destroying the art, which is very valuable.
To take a normal radiocarbon sample would be unduly disruptive,’ he explains.