The bulk of his symphonic production dates from these years before 1771.Although humour and good nature pervade these works, stronger emotions and tension also begin to appear, as in the minor-key ), with its adagio (slow) coda, displays Haydn’s wit and is one of the best of his symphonies from the decade before 1780.Emperor Heraclius breaks his promise of protection to Jews, massacring any he found and forbidding them from entering Jerusalem.
Rebellion leader Mar Zutra usurps power from Kobad the Zenduk, establishing an independant Jewish state in Babylon that would last for seven years, until Zutra's forces defeated Zutra's army, killing him and instituted a harsh policy toward the remaining Jews.
An eclectic architect, he amalgamated all the styles of his time in uniquely free and expressive shapes. Haydn wrote a number of slow movements as rondos (notably, in his ) and employed rondos 12 times in his last 17 symphonies.
Rondo form (in which a recurrent theme alternates with other material, as A B A C A) had been found especially in Italian opera and French instrumental music before about 1770; in the 1770s and ’80s it became second only to sonata form in symphonic importance. Mozart avoided the rondo in his last symphonies, perhaps because of the light nature of the form.
Joseph Haydn, despite his isolation from urban musical centres for much of his life, was revered throughout Europe, beloved by Mozart and Beethoven, and widely published and copied—so much so that the authenticity of many works attributed to him remains in question.
One hundred and eight symphonies are thought to have been written by him; one of these is lost.