It is precisely how they measure the genetic history of humans, going back and seeing how and when genes alter over time.For example, they looked at cognates, words derived from ancestral words. Firstly it should be said that (I believe I’m correct in saying) most scholars lean towards the Homeric Epics having originated in the eighth century BC. Buckley sums it up quite nicely in the introduction to his 2007 translation: The internal evidence for dating the poems as early as the eighth century B. is somewhat as follows: the evidence of history, consisting of a comparison of the political system of Homer with the earliest systems that we know in Greece; the social conditions of Homer’s time; the geography, the institutions, arts, manners, and customs as compared with those which are found in the earliest times known to history; the evidence of language, for the Greek of Homer is of an earlier cast than any we know elsewhere; and the evidence which arises from the influence of Homer on the subsequent course of literature and art. There are no authors or sources from antiquity which tell us exactly when the Homeric Epics were written.They guess this in a few ways, mainly based on language and context clues from the text. Altogether it appeared that the dating (and even information of poet himself) wasn’t particularly important to them.
The compilation we know as the "Iliad" was written centuries later, the date Pagel is proposing.He is the author of nine books on science and the history of science, and has taught science journalism at Stanford University, UC Santa Cruz and the University of Alaska Fairbanks.ancient Greece have always been attributed to the shadowy figure of Homer, little is known of him beyond the fact that his was the name attached in antiquity by the Greeks themselves to the poems.Indirectly through the medium of Virgil’s Homeric epics had a profound impact on the Renaissance culture of Italy.Since then the proliferation of translations has helped to make them the most important poems of the Classical European tradition.This may or may not be the case, in my eyes — we have no real way of knowing for sure whether they knew of Egypt before we assume they did, or whether Homer was actually speaking of this ‘Egypt’.That last doubt of mine comes from the fact that West comments on the ‘Aithiopes’ mentioned in the Odyssey are ‘evidently not the mythical Aithiopes who live at the ends of the earth, but a dark-skinned people to be found in the same general area as Egypt’, which I don’t see is so strictly ‘evident’.There is "water" in English, "wasser" in German, "vatten" in Swedish, all cognates emanating from "wator" in proto-German.However, the Old English "hund" later became "hound" but eventually was replaced by "dog," not a cognate. "I study language because it's such a remarkable culturally transmitted replicator.That there was an epic poet called Homer and that he played the primary part in shaping the , two realistic and one fantastic, that converge in the expression of a moral lesson: that a person can win out against terrible odds if he combines intelligence with bravery and determination.This 1965 video is a production of Encyclopædia Britannica Educational Corporation.education and culture throughout the Classical age and formed the backbone of humane education down to the time of the Roman Empire and the spread of Christianity.