One is a scarcity of human fossils dating to the period of the transition, a problem exacerbated in recent years by the redating of a number of human fossils formerly assigned to this interval to a younger age (7).In some cases, human fossil remains are present, but they represent small portions of the skeleton (e.g., isolated teeth) difficult to assign to a specific taxon (10).If Neanderthals produced at least some of the stone artifact forms found in Upper Paleolithic assemblages, anatomically modern humans continued to manufacture and use many typical Middle Paleolithic forms long after the transition.
They are similar to assemblages probably made by modern humans in the Levant (Emiran) at an earlier date and apparently represent a population movement into the Balkans during a warm climate interval [Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI 12)].
One of these is the changing climates of the MIS 3 interval and their impact on European biota.
The most widely used stratigraphic framework for MIS 3 Europe is the climate proxy record of the North Atlantic and Greenland.
Although stone blade technology is traditionally associated with Upper Paleolithic industries, it became apparent many years ago that Middle Paleolithic industries in various parts of Eurasia yield evidence of blade production.
Blade manufacture is well documented in the Middle Paleolithic of Europe and the Near East (13, 14).