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Six units are boiling water reactors (BWR), 11 are pressurised water reactors (PWR). A further PWR had not operated since 1988 because of a licensing dispute.This picture changed in 2011, with the operating fleet being reduced to nine reactors with 12,003 MWe capacity, and then to eight reactors with 10,728 MWe.The most immediate effect of this change of policy was to terminate R&D on both the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and the fast breeder reactors after some 30 years of promising work, since much of the work was in North Rhine-Westphalia, which was governed by the SPD.A Christian Democrat (CDU) federal government then maintained support for existing nuclear power generation nationally until defeated in 1998.Other elements included: a government commitment not to introduce any "one-sided" economic or taxation measures, a recognition by the government of the high safety standards of German nuclear plants and a guarantee not to erode those standards, the resumption of spent fuel transports for reprocessing in France and UK for five years or until contracts expire, and maintenance of two waste repository projects (at Konrad and Gorleben).In June 2001 the leaders of the ' Red-Green' coalition government and the four main energy companies signed an agreement to give effect to this 2000 compromise.

While these policies have created an impressive roll-out of renewable energy resources, they have also clearly generated disequilibrium in the power markets, resulting in significant increases in energy prices to most users, as well as value destruction for all stakeholders: consumers, renewable companies, electric utilities, financial institutions, and investors.” This is the introductory paragraph in a July 2014 report by Finadvice for the Edison Electric Institute and European clients. In a 28 November 2015 Special Report , having pointed out that French households pay about half as much as German ones for electricity, commented: “Germany has made unusually big mistakes.The companies' undertaking to limit the operational lives of the reactors to an average of 32 years meant that two of the least economic ones – Stade and Obrigheim – were shut down in 20 respectively, and the one non-operational reactor (Mülheim-Kärlich, 1219 MWe) commenced decommissioning in 2003.Brunsbüttel was shut down in 2007, as was Krümmel, apart from a few weeks operation in 2009.Generating capacity at the end of 2016 was 197 GWe, comprising 9.5 GWe nuclear, 3.9 GWe hydro (plus 9.3 GWe pumped storage), 45 GWe onshore wind, 4.1 GWe offshore wind, 41 GWe solar, 20.0 GWe lignite, 22.7 GWe hard coal, 7.4 GWe biomass and 24.2 GWe natural gas (Fraunhofer Institute data).In 2015 wind and solar PV had capacity factors of 20% and 11% respectively, compared with 97% for nuclear (IEA figures).The agreement also prohibited the construction of new nuclear power plants for the time being and introduced the principle of on-site storage for used fuel.The agreement was a pragmatic compromise which limited political interference while providing a basis and plenty of time for formulation of a national energy policy.An industry leader reminded his government that "Reliable and cost-effective energy supply must remain an important component of German economic policy".Some speculation centred on the future of the agreement and the revised Atomic Energy Act which followed it under any new government.In June 2000 a compromise was announced which saved face for the government and secured the uninterrupted operation of the nuclear plants for many years ahead.The agreement, while limiting plant lifetime to some degree, averted the risk of any federally-enforced plant closures during the term of that government.


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