Sexual maturity in ponds is reached at an age of 5-6 months.
Spawning begins when the water temperature reaches 24 °C.
Swim-up fry gather at the edge of a tank or pond and can be collected with fine-mesh nets.
Being a maternal mouth brooder, the number of eggs per spawn is small in comparison with most other pond fishes. Spinous and soft ray parts of dorsal fin continuous. Colour in spawning season, pectoral, dorsal and caudal fins becoming reddish; caudal fin with numerous black bars.Nile tilapia from Japan were introduced to Thailand in 1965, and from Thailand they were sent to the Philippines.In addition, research on nutrition and culture systems, along with market development and processing advances, led to rapid expansion of the industry since the mid 1980s.Several species of tilapia are cultured commercially, but Nile tilapia is the predominant cultured species worldwide.The breeding process starts when the male establishes a territory, digs a craterlike spawning nest and guards his territory.The ripe female spawns in the nest, and immediately after fertilization by the male, collects the eggs into her mouth and moves off.Body compressed; caudal peduncle depth equal to length. A knob-like protuberance absent on dorsal surface of snout. While significant worldwide distribution of tilapias, primarily , occurred during the 1940s and 1950s, distribution of the more desirable Nile tilapia occurred during the 1960s up to the 1980s. Dorsal fin with 16 - 17 spines and 11 to 15 soft rays. ) can be traced to ancient Egyptian times as depicted on bas-relief from an Egyptian tomb dating back over 4000 years, which showed the fish held in ornamental ponds.Egg number is proportional to the body weight of the female.A 100 g female will produce about 100 eggs per spawn, while a female weighing 600-1 000 g can produce 1 000 to 1 500 eggs.